Nd:YVO4 crystal is one of the most efficient laser host crystal currently existing for diode laser pumped solid state lasers. Its large stimulated emission cross-section at lasing wavelength, high absorption coefficient and wide absorption bandwidth at pump wavelength, high laser induced damage threshold as well as good physical, optical and mechanical properties make Nd:YVO4 an excellent crystal for high power, stable and cost effective diode pumped solid-state lasers.

Features and Applications

★ Low lasing threshold and high slope efficiency

★ Low dependency on pump wavelength

★ Large stimulated emission cross-section at lasing wavelength

★ High absorption over a wide pumping wavelength bandwidth

★ Optically uniaxial and large birefringence emits polarized laser

★ For Single-longitudinal-mode output and compact design

★ Diode laser-pumped Nd:YVO4 compact laser and its frequency-doubled green, red or blue laser will be the ideal laser tools of machining, material processing, spectroscopy, wafer inspection, light show, medical diagnostics, laser printing and other most widespread applications

Physical Properties

Atomic Density ~1.37x1020 atoms/cm3
Crystal Structure Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h
a=b=7.12, c=6.29
Density 4.22 g/cm3
Mohs Hardness Glass-like, ~5
Thermal Expansion Coefficient a=4.43x10-6/K, c=11.37x10-6/K

Optical Properties

(typically for 1.1 atm% Nd:YVO4, a-cut crystals)

Lasing Wavelengths 914nm, 1064nm, 1342nm
Thermal Optical Coefficient dna/dT=8.5x10-6/K, dnc/dT=3.0x10-6/K
Stimulated Emission Cross-Section 25.0x10-19cm2@1064nm
Fluorescent Lifetime 90us @808nm, (50us @808 nm for 2atm% Nd doped)
Absorption Coefficient 31.4 cm-1@808nm
Absorption Length 0.32 mm @808nm
Intrinsic Loss Less than 0.1% cm-1@1064nm
Gain Bandwidth 0.96 nm (257 GHz) @1064nm
Polarized Laser Emission p polarization, Parallel to optic axis (c-axis)
Diode Pumped Optical to Optical Efficiency >60%
Crystal Class Positive uniaxial, no=na=nb, ne=nc,
no=1.9573, ne=2.1652, @1064nm
no=1.9721, ne=2.1858, @808nm
no=2.0210, ne=2.2560, @532nm
Sellmeier Equation(for pure YVO4 crystals, λ in um) no2=3.77834+0.069736/(λ2-0.04724)-0.0108133λ2

Laser Properties

(Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG)

Laser Crystal Nd doped σ α τ La Pth η
(atm%) (x10-19cm2) (cm-1) (cm-1) (mm) (mW) ( %)
Nd:YVO4(a-cut) 1.1 25 31.2 90 0.32 78 48.6
2 72.4 50 0.14
Nd:YVO4(c-cut) 1.1 7 9.2 90 231 45.5
Nd:YAG 0.85 6 7.1 230 1.41 115 38.6

Key Specifications

Parameters Ranges or Tolerances
Nd Dopant Level 0.1-5.0 at m%
Scattering Invisible, probed with a He-Ne laser
Orientation Tolerance ± 0.5 deg
Dimensional Tolerance ± 0.1 mm
Surface Quality (Scratch-Dig) 10-5
Clear Aperture > 90%
Surface Flatness < λ/10 @ 633 nm
Wavefront Error < λ/8 @ 633 nm
Parallelism < 10 arcsec
End-faces Configuration Plano / Plano
Intrinsic Loss < 0.1%cm-1
Coatings AR 1064 & HT 808: R < 0.1% @1064nm, R<5% @ 808nm
HR 1064 & HT 808 & HR 532: R>99.8% @1064nm, R<5% @ 808nm, r="">99% @ 532nm
AR 1064: R<0.1% @ 1064nm

For more information on other type of crystal such as Nonlinear Crystal [BBO (Beta-BaB2O4), Potassium Titanium Oxide Phosphate (KTiOPO4 or KTP)], Passive Q-Switch Crystal [Cr: YAG (Cr4+:Y3Al5O12)], E-O Crystal [Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3), BBO crystal], Birefringent Crystal [Yttrium Orthovanadate (YVO4), Calcite, Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3), High Temperature Form BBO (α-BaB2O4), Single Synthetic Crystal Quartz, Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2)] or get a quote, please feel free to contact us.